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Interventions for Stigma Reduction – Part 2: Practical Applications


Hugh Alistair Cross ,

Anandaban Hospital, Tikha Bhairav, Lele, Lalitpur, NP
About Hugh Alistair

BSc (podiatry) in 1993.  Awarded PhD in 1996. Dr. Hugh Cross started working in 1997 as Prevention of Disability Development Officer with Lalgadh Leprosy Services Centre (a project of the Nepal Leprosy Trust) and subsequently became a Programme Director (1998 to 2001) in the organisation.

In 2001, Dr. Hugh Cross assumed the post of Regional (Asia) Consultant for the Prevention of Disability (POD) for the American Leprosy Missions and continues in that post till date. He is also the Leprosy Mission International Representative in Nepal and member of the ILEP Technical Commission (ITC). He has numerous published journal articles, books and book chapters to his credit.

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Miriam Heijnders,

Independent researcher/advisor, NL
About Miriam
The author has a PhD in stigma and non-compliance to leprosy treatment. Currently works as an independent researcher/advisor.
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Ajit Dalal,

The University of Allahabad, IN
About Ajit

The author is a Professor of Psychology in University of Allahabad, India. He obtained a doctoral degree from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, and has published in the areas of causal attribution, health beliefs and indigenous psychology. He has received the Fulbright Senior Scholar Fellowship and worked at University of California, Los Angeles, and at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He has also been the recipient of the UGC Career Award, Rockefeller Foundation Award and ICSSR Senior Fellowship.

Has published about 70 research articles and book chapters, in addition to eight books, including Attribution Theory and Research, New Directions in Indian Psychology (Vol.1), Social Dimensions of Health and Handbook of Indian Psychology. He is the editor of the journal ‘Psychology and Developing Societies’ published by Sage.



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Silatham Sermrittirong,

Raj Pracha Samasai Institute, TH
About Silatham

Ms Silatham Sermrittirong is currently associated with the Raj Pracha Samasai Institute in Thailand as a Technical Officer. She manages leprosy related trainings and workshops, and prepares and implements plans of action related to the National Leprosy Programme in Thailand.

She also coordinates with other organizations in and outside Thailand to implement the national  leprosy control programme, supports and enables regional and provincial leprosy coordinators across Thailand to effectively carry out the Thai leprosy programme and conducts leprosy related research projects (many publications, primarily in Thai journals).

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Stephanie Mak

VU University, NL
About Stephanie

Bachelors degree in Bio-medical Science, University of Amsterdam (2007). Minor in International Development Studies (no degree) and first year courses of Spanish language and culture, University of Amsterdam (2008).

Currently undertaking a Masters degree in Infectious Diseases and International Public Health at VU University, Amsterdam.

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This paper reports the endeavours of the Working Group assigned to develop guidelines for interventions to reduce stigma. The group was comprised of academics and experienced field personnel, all of whom had either investigated stigma, implemented actions to address stigma, and/or had experienced stigma. The group’s mandate was to develop an intervention to reduce the stigma of leprosy, but while accepting that there are commonalities relating to stigma that cut across different health conditions, it was hoped that a generic intervention might be developed.

This goal proved to be unattainable in the time given: condition-specific peculiarities and the diversity of cultural contexts presented significant challenges. The group agreed, however, that a considerable body of theory and expert opinion does exist, and that general strategies might be developed from this. The Working Group discussed a systematic review of such material. It also discussed other material that was considered to be important but had not met the criteria for the systematic review. One conclusion of the group’s deliberations was that a “Stigma Intervention Matrix” could be a useful guide for cross-checking the development of situation-specific stigma interventions. The Stigma Intervention Matrix is presented in this paper.

How to Cite: Cross, H.A., Heijnders, M., Dalal, A., Sermrittirong, S. and Mak, S., 2012. Interventions for Stigma Reduction – Part 2: Practical Applications. Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development, 22(3), pp.71–80. DOI:
Published on 15 Feb 2012.
Peer Reviewed


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