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Original Research Articles

Teachers’ Attitudes towards Inclusion of Blind or Partially-Sighted Students in Secondary Schools in Nigeria


Paul Ajuwon ,

Missouri State University, US
About Paul
Paul M Ajuwon, Ph.D., CADFP, is a Professor in the Department of Counseling, Leadership & Special Education at Missouri State University, U.S.A. He has been training teacher-candidates nationally and internationally for over 20 years. His research interests and numerous publications relate to: inclusive education, stakeholders’ attitudes, Braille literacy and assistive technology, family quality of life, and special education leadership.
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George Chitiyo,

Tennessee Technological University, US
About George
George Chitiyo, Ph.D., is Professor of Educational Research and Evaluation at Tennessee Tech University, Tennessee, U.S.A. His research interests include the psychosocial aspects of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa as well as economics of health and higher education both in the US and in Southern Africa.
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Liziana N Onuigbo,

University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, NG
About Liziana N
Dr. Liziana Onuigbo is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education Foundations, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Anambra state, where she teaches Special Needs Education. She holds the MED and Ph.D. degrees in Special Education from the University of Nigeria, and belongs to a number of international and national academic bodies. She has numerous publications on a variety of topics to her credit.
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Adaka T Ahon,

Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State, NG
About Adaka T
Dr. Adaka T. Ahon is Lecturer at the Department of Special Education at the Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Previously, he taught at the Federal College of Education (Tech), Gombe State, Nigeria, and University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. He holds a Ph.D. degree from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Dr. Ahon is a member of several editorial teams, and has co-edited several books and published numerous articles in reputable journals.
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James E Olayi

University of Calabar, Cross River State, NG
About James
Dr. James Eburikure Olayi is a senior lecturer in special needs education at the University of Calabar, Nigeria, where he has worked for several years. His research interests include: Inclusive education, parental attitudes, and braille literacy. Dr. Olayi has to his credit over 50 articles in reputable journals.
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Purpose: This study investigated the attitudes of secondary school teachers towards students with blindness or partial sight in selected states in Nigeria.

Method: The authors utilised the modified version of a previous instrument to collect data from 306 secondary school teachers in Nigeria. Six basic questions were  established to address: respondents’ attitudes towards inclusion; training acquired related to teaching; knowledge pertaining to policy and legislation; confidence levels; impact of geographical location; and differences in attitudes by the variables of subject(s) taught, school level taught, and years of teaching experience.

Results: Attitudes of participants were mixed but generally indicated a positive trend. The level of training was low, with teachers showing limited knowledge of policy and legislation. A little over a quarter (27%) of them lacked confidence in teaching. There were differences in attitudes related to the geographical location of respondents. Those who taught at the senior secondary school level tended to have higher attitude scores on average than their counterparts at the junior secondary school level.

Conclusion and Limitations: This study used self-report measures, although observations and interviews could be additional ways to evaluate the attitudes of participants throughout the country. Moreover, in-service programmes should be implemented to increase the knowledge base and expand the experiences of teachers in line with established policies and legislation. 

How to Cite: Ajuwon, P., Chitiyo, G., Onuigbo, L.N., Ahon, A.T. and Olayi, J.E., 2020. Teachers’ Attitudes towards Inclusion of Blind or Partially-Sighted Students in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development, 31(2), pp.33–51. DOI:
Published on 04 Nov 2020.


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