Development and Standardization of a Test of Motor Proficiency in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in India

Ritu Kalgotra, Jaspal Singh Warwal


Purpose: To develop a scale for the assessment of gross and fine motor skills of the children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities so that their skills could be assessed and accordingly interventions in physical activities could be specifically designed for them.

Method: Thirty-eight items for the Test of Motor Proficiency scale was developed after initial try out, pilot study and final try-out by the researchers. Fifty children with mild intellectual disabilities (n = 26), and moderate intellectual disabilities (n = 24) aged between 6 to 17 years fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected from special schools in Jammu district, J&K (India).The Test of Motor Proficiency was administered on the selected sample.

Results: Internal consistency as calculated through Cronbach's Alpha was .906, indicating very good reliability. There was a highly significant correlation between the two independent assessments in inter-rater reliability r (48) = .95, p< .05 and  also within the domains of motor proficiency, Visual-Motor control r (48) =.728, p< .05, Upper limb speed and dexterity r (48) = .98, p< .05 , Running speed and agility r (48) =.99, p< .05, Bilateral coordination   r (48) =.96, p< .05, Strength r (48) =.95, p<.05, upper limb coordination r (48) =.62, p< .05. Concurrent validity of Test of Motor Proficiency was established against BASIC- MR; the correlation of BASIC-MR (M = 151.92, SD = 18.08, N = 50) and Test of Motor Proficiency (M = 49.22, SD = 12.23, N = 50) was highly significant r (48) = .76, p< .05. The construct validity assessed through test retest was r (48) =.97, p< .05.

Implications: The Scale can be used in the assessment of gross and fine motor skills of children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities for clinical and research purposes.


Motor proficiency; dexterity; agility; bilateral coordination

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