Access to Services and Barriers faced by People with Disabilities: A Quantitative Survey
Purpose: In low- and middle-income countries, reliable and disaggregated disability data on prevalence, participation and barriers is often not available. This study aimed to estimate disability prevalence, determine associated socio-demographic factors and compare access in the community between people with and without disability in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand, India, using the Rapid Assessment of Disability Survey.
Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted on a sample of 2431 adults, selected using a two-stage cluster randomised sampling technique. The survey comprised an interviewer-administered household survey and an individual survey measuring disability, wellbeing and participation. For each person with disability, an age and sex-matched control (without disability) was selected. In addition to prevalence, the difference in participation and barriers faced by people with and without disability were analysed.
Results and Conclusions: The prevalence of disability was 6.8% (95% CI 5.8-7.8) with significant associations with age, sex, economic status, education and employment. Psychosocial distress (4.8%) and mobility impairment (2.7%) were the most common disabilities identified. The study showed that people with disabilities had significantly less access to services than those without disability, and the barriers reported most often were lack of information, transport and physical inaccessibility.
Amin M, MacLachlan M, Mannan H, El Tayeb S, El Khatim A, Swartz L, Munthali A, Van Rooy G, McVeigh J, Eide A (2011). EquiFrame: A framework for analysis of the inclusion of human rights and vulnerable groups in health policies. Health Hum Rights; 13(2): 1-20. PMid:22957368
Das S (2013). A brief scanning on performance of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in Assam, India. American Journal of Rural Development; 1(3): 49-61
Department for International Development - DFID (2000). Disability, poverty and development: London
Ministry of Statistics (2003). Disabled persons in India. NSS 58th Round. July-December 2002. Government of India.
Ministry of Statistics (2011). Disability in India – A statistical profile. Government of India.
Ministry of Home Affairs (2016). Census 2011 [Online]. Government of India. Available: http://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/censusinfodashboard/index.html.
Grills NJ, Robinson P, Phillip M (2012). Networking for health: The Uttarakhand case study. BMC Health Services; 12:206. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-12-206. PMid:22812627. PMCid:PMC3424140
Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ, Hiripi E, Mroczek DK, Normand SLT, Walters EE, Zaslavsky A (2002). Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychological Medicine; 32: 959-976. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291702006074. PMid:12214795
Kumar SG, Roy G, Kar SS (2012). Disability and rehabilitation services in India: Issues and challenges. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care; 1: 69-73. https://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.94458. PMid:24479007. PMCid:PMC3893941
Lenze E, Rogers J, Martire L, Mulsant B, Rollman B, Dew A (2001). The association of late-life depression and anxiety with physical disability: A review of the literature and prospectus for future research. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry; 9: 113. https://doi.org/10.1097/00019442-200105000-00004. PMid:11316616
Marella M, Busija L, Islam A, Devine A, Fotis K, Baker S, Sprunt B, Edmonds T, Nafisa HL, Cama A, Keeffe JE (2014). Field-testing of the rapid assessment of disability questionnaire. BMC; 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-900
Marella M, Devine A, Armecin GF, Zayas J, Marco MJ, Vaughan C (2016). Rapid assessment of disability in the Philippines: Understanding prevalence, well-being, and access to the community for people with disabilities to inform the W-DARE project. Population Health Metrics; 14: 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-016-0096-y. PMid:27489509. PMCid:PMC4971707
McKnight PE, Kashdan TB (2009). The importance of functional impairment to mental health outcomes: A case for reassessing our goals in depression treatment research. Clinical Psychology Review; 29: 243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.005. PMid:19269076. PMCid:PMC2814224
McVeigh J, MacLachlan M, Gilmore B, McClean C, Eide AH, Mannan H, Geiser P, Duttine A, Mji G, McAuliffe E, Sprunt B, Amin M, Normand C (2016). Promoting good policy for leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation: A realist synthesis. Globalization and Health; 12: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-016-0182-8. PMid:27558240 PMCid:PMC4997679
Mitra SW, Sambamoorthi U (2006). Disability estimates in India: What the census and NSS tell us. Econ Polit Wkly; 2006: 4022e4026.
Novotny J, Kubelkova J, Joseph V (2013). A multi-dimensional analysis of the impacts of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme: A tale from Tamil Nadu. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography; 34: 22-341. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjtg.12037
Ramachandra SS, Allagh KP, Kumar H, Grills N, Marella M, Pant H, Mahesh D, Soji F, Mani S, Murthy GVS (2016). Prevalence of disability among adults using Rapid Assessment of Disability tool in a rural district of South India. Disability and Health Journal; 9: 624-631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2016.05.010. PMid:27343046
Shenoy M (2011). Persons with disability & the India labour market: Challenges and opportunities [Online]. Bangkok: ILO. Available: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---sro-new_delhi/documents/publication/wcms_229259.pdf [Accessed on 1 Jan 2017].
StataCorp (2015). Stata Statistical Software, College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.
The Nossal Institute For Global Health (October 2015). Rapid assessment of disability baseline in the access to quality education programme. Access to Quality Education Programme. Suva, Fiji.
United Nations Development Programme - UNDP (2015). Sustainable development goals: Good health and wellbeing [Online]. Available: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-3-good-health-and-well-being.html [Accessed on 1 Jan 2017].
World Bank (2009). People with disabilities in India: From commitments to outcomes [Online]. Available: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/577801468259486686/pdf/502090WP0Peopl1Box0342042B01PUBLIC1.pdf [Accessed on 1 Jan 2017].
World Health Organisation (2017). International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICF) framework [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/.
World Health Organisation and World Bank (2011). World report on disability [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/en/ [Accessed on 1 Jan 2017].
Worthington RP, Gogne A (2011). Cultural aspects of primary healthcare in India: A case-based analysis. Asia Pacific Family Medicine; 10: 8-9.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2017 Nathan Grills, Lawrence Singh, Hira Pant, Jubin Varghese, GVS Murthy, Monsurul Hoq, Manjula Marella
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
© Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development