Towards Accessible Built Environments in Universities in Ghana: An Approach to Inclusiveness Assessment

Eric Paul Tudzi, John Bugri, Anthony Danso


Purpose: The study aimed to objectively assess the level of inclusiveness of buildings in selected Universities on the basis of international protocols and local legislation that require that buildings should be made accessible to persons with disabilities.

Method: A building inclusiveness model, the Composite Disability Design Inclusiveness Score (CDDIS), was used to assess the levels of inclusiveness of 110 buildings in 6 purposively selected Universities in Ghana, using maximal variation sampling.

Results: It was found that the buildings of the sampled Universities were not inclusive to a large extent. With one exception, there were variations in the levels of inclusiveness of the buildings in each institution.

Conclusions: Irrespective of international protocols and local legislation, the built environments in Universities are not as accessible as they ought to be.

Limitation: The CDDIS is a simple quantitative means of assessing the inclusiveness of buildings and allows for objective comparisons. However, it is expected that for purposes of comparison, identical buildings should be used. Any intended use of the CDDIS will require the use of a checklist that is appropriately designed to meet the peculiarities of the particular study.

Implications: There is the need for expedited effort to ensure inclusiveness in University built environments. This will help greatly towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.


Sustainable development goals; disability; composite disability design inclusiveness score; access audit

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