The Double Burden: Barriers and Facilitators to Socioeconomic Inclusion for Women with Disability in Bangladesh

Marlee Elizabeth Quinn, Dr. Cynthia L Hunter, Mr. Sumanta Ray, Mr. Mohammad Morshedul Quadir Rimon, Mr. Krishno Sen, Prof. Robert Cumming

Abstract


Purpose: Recent evidence suggests that, globally, women with disability suffer multiple forms of discrimination and exclusion from mainstream society when compared with their female peers and men without disability. In Bangladesh, which is a grossly overpopulated low-income country in South Asia, women with disability have poor health outcomes within a gender-biased cultural context. This study aimed to define the current barriers and facilitators to socioeconomic inclusion for women with physical disability living in the community in Bangladesh and to highlight the impact of these barriers on health. 

Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women who had either a spinal cord injury or amputation, and who had been discharged for at least 3 months after inpatient admission. Mixed purposeful sampling (a mixture of typical case sampling and criterion sampling) was used to recruit the study participants. A thematic analysis was conducted to extract themes from the data.  The social determinants of health framework and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) model were then used to contextualise the data.

Results: Five major themes were identified including: exclusion from formal education, exclusion from the work force, exclusion from public facilities, exclusion from marriage and increased risk of violence and exclusion from community activities and social groups. Facilitators to inclusion include: provision of accessible buildings and transport, community- based advocacy services and vocational training services.

Conclusions: The combination of physical disability and female gender presents multiple complex barriers to inclusion in the socioeconomic and cultural life of Bangladesh. Practical interventions through both up-scaling and expansion of disability-specific programming and sustained policy implementation are required to facilitate individual empowerment and better health outcomes for women with disability.

Keywords


Exclusion; disability; women; physical disability

Full Text:

PDF

References


Austrian Development Agency (2013). Persons with disabilities inclusion: Human right and mandate guideline on including persons with disabilities in ADC project cycle management. Vienna Austria: Austrian Development Agency; December, 23.

Blunch NH, Das MB (2007). Changing norms about gender inequality in education: Evidence from Bangladesh. World Bank South Asia Region: Sustainable Development Department; Report No.: 4404.

Creating Resources or Empowerment in Action – CREA (2012). Count me in: Research report on violence against disabled, lesbian, and sex-working women in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. New Delhi: CREA; Report No.: 09042013.

De Alwis RDS (2010). The intersections of the CEDAW and CRPD: Integrating women's rights and disability rights into concrete action in four asian countries. Wellesley Centre for Women (US): 126.

Dhungana BM (2006). The lives of disabled women in Nepal – vulnerability without support. Disability and Society Journal; 21(2): 133-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687590500498051

Ferdaush J, Mustafizur Rahman KM (2011). Gender Inequality in Bangladesh. The Centre for Research and Action on Development: Dhaka.

Foley D, Chowdhury J (2007). Poverty, Social Exclusion and the Politics of Disability: Care as a Social Good and the Expenditure of Social Capital in Chuadanga, Bangladesh. J Social Policy and Administration;41(4): 372-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2007.00559.x

Green J, Thorogood N (2009). Qualitative Methods for Health Research. Sage Publications: London. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2007.023119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2008.029397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2008.029447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2008.028837 PMid:19188456 PMCid:PMC2629853

Habib MohaammadZ, Md. Habibur R (2002). Human Rights, Civil Society and Nongovernmental Organisations: The Nexus in Bangladesh. Human Rights Quarterly; 24(4): 1011-1034. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hrq.2002.0055

Hassan T, Muhaddes T, Camellia S, Selim N, Rashid SF (2014). Prevalence and Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women With Disabilities in Bangladesh: Results of an explanatory sequential mixed-method study. J Inter per Violence; 29 (17): 3105 – 3126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260514534525. PMid:24860077

Layard R, Chisholm D, Patel V, Saxena S (2013) In Helliwell J, Layard R, Sachs J (eds) World happiness report, 2013. UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network: New York. PMCid:PMC3776229

Hosain GM, Atkinson D, Underwood P (2002). Impact of Quality of Life of Rural Disabled People in Bangladesh. J Health Popul & Nutr; 20(4): 297-305. PMid:12659409

Hussein A (2008). Report on Women with Disabilities in Bangladesh. Social Assistance and Rehabilitation for the Physically Vulnerable (SARPV): Dhaka.

International Disability Alliance (2015). Disability indicators: SDG Advocacy tool kit [Online] Available at: http://www.iddcconsortium.net/resources-tools/disability-indicators-sdg-advocacy-toolkit [Accessed on 9 September 2015].

Jalil MA (2012). Disabled people's access to public sector employment in Bangladesh: Why so little changes?. Int'l J. Sust. Dev.; 3(9): 87-92

Kashyap A (2013). Bangladesh: Three terrible exclusions [Online]. Available at: http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/08/02/bangladesh-three-terrible-exclusion [Accessed on 2 August 2015].

Mitra S, Posarak A, Vick B (2011). Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries: A snapshot from the world health survey. World Bank: Washington DC. Report no.: 62564.

Murray CD, Wynne J (2010). Using an interpreter to research community, work and family. J Comm. Work and Fam; 4(2): 157-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713658930

National Human Rights Commission, Bangladesh (2013). The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: A Study on Bangladesh Compliance. NHRC: Dhaka Bangladesh .

Nokrek P, Alam MA, Ahmed M (2013).Livelihood challenges for extremely poor disabled people in the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. Shiree: Dhaka: Shiree. Report No.:12.

Popay J, Escorel S, Hernández M, Johnston H, Mathieson J, Rispel L (2008). Understanding and Tackling Social Exclusion. World Health Organisation (WHO) Social Exclusion Knowledge Network: Lancaster UK.

Rahman O (1993). Excess mortality for the unmarried in rural Bangladesh. Int J of Epidemiol; 22(3): 445-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/22.3.445. PMid:8359960

Salah U (2003). Disability Situation & Impact of ADD work in Bangladesh [Online]. Available at: http://www.independentliving.org/docs6 /uddin20 0309.html [Accessed on 5 August 2015]

Sense International (2013). New Bangladeshi Disability Act Helps to Improve the Lives of Millions [Online]. Available at: http://www.senseinternational.org.uk/news/new-bangladesh-disability-act-helps-improve-lives-millions [Accessed on 8 October 2015]

Simkhada PP, Shyangdan D, Van Teijlingen ER, Kadel S, Stephen J, Gurung T (2013). Women's knowledge and attitude towards disability in rural Nepal. J Disability & Rehabilitation; 35(7): 606–613. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2012.702847. PMid:22823929

Sobo E (2009). Culture & Meaning in Health Services Research California. Left Coast Press: Walnut Creek CA.

Sultana Z (2010). Agony of persons with Disability – A comparative study in Bangladeshi. J Politics and Law; 3(2): 212-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jpl.v3n2p212

Tareque MI, Begum S, Saito Y(2014). Inequality in Disability in Bangladesh. PLOS One; 9(7):1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103681. PMid:25075513 PMCid:PMC4116223

Thomas P (2011). Implementing Disability-inclusive Development in the Pacific and Asia. Development Studies Network: Canberra Australia

Titumir RAM, Hossain J (2005). Disability in Bangladesh: Prevalence, knowledge, Attitudes and Practices. The Centre for Research and Action on Develoment: Dhaka.

United Nations (2007). Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on progress in the implementation of the recommendations contained in the study on the human rights of persons with disabilities. UN Human Rights Council: Geneva, Switzerland.

United Nations General Assembly (2006). Final report of the Ad Hoc Committee on a Comprehensive and Integral International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities. United Nations: Geneva, Switzerland.

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (2010). Women and Girls in Bangladesh. UNICEF: New York.

Wilkinson R, Marmot M (2003). The Solid Facts: Social Determinants of Health (2nd ed), World Health Organisation (WHO): Copenhagen. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0305-750x(02)00218-8




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5463/dcid.v27i2.474

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Marlee Elizabeth Quinn, Professor Robert Cumming, Dr. Cynthia L Hunter, Sumanta Ray, Mr. Mohammad Morshedul Quadir Rimon, Krishno Sen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Supported by:

netherlandsleprosyrelief_logo_rgb_-_new_logo_2014_120CBMlightfortheworld_logo_rgb_-_new_logo_2014_120     

© Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development