Factors related to Recovery and Relapse in Persons with Stuttering Following Treatment: A Preliminary Study

Pravesh Arya, Geetha Y V




Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate and compare factors related to recovery and relapse outcomes after treatment, among adults with stuttering.

Method: The participants were 24 adults who underwent fluency therapy and reported for follow-up 6 months after cessation of treatment. Pre, immediate, post and 6-months post-treatment follow-up evaluations were done using stuttering severity instrument SSI-3. On the basis of total scores and severity obtained, participants were then grouped as either recovered or relapsed persons with stuttering. A questionnaire was administered to obtain their ratings for the different domains of factors that contributed to treatment outcomes.

Results: A significant difference was found between both the groups with respect to factors contributing to recovery and relapse. The four domains which were found to be more responsible for treatment outcomes in persons with stuttering were: individual related, therapy related, environment related, and behaviour and personality related factors.

Conclusion: The study was conducted with fewer participants, and it is possible that there could be many other pre-treatment and post-treatment factors such as attitude, anxiety, and speech naturalness which may influence the treatment outcomes in persons with stuttering. Future research should include these other factors.

doi 10.5463/DCID.v24i1.189


Stuttering; recovery; relapse

Full Text:



Ambrose N, Cox N, Yairi E (1997). Genetic basis of persistent and recovered stuttering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research; 40: 567-580.

Andrews G, Craig A (1988). Prediction of outcome after treatment for stuttering. British Journal of Psychiatry; 153: 236–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.153.2.236. PMid:3255438

Andrews G, Craig A, Feyer AM, Hoddinott S, Howie P, Neilson M (1983). Stuttering: A review of research findings and theories circa. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders; 48: 226–46. PMid:6353066

Andrews G, Guitar B, Howie P (1980). Meta-analysis of the effects of stuttering treatment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders; 45: 287–307. PMid:7412224

Arnold H, Conture E, Ohde R (2005). Influence of phonological density on picture naming responses of young children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders; 30: 125-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfludis.2005.01.001. PMid:15949541

Block S, Onslow M, Packman A, Dacakis G (2006). Connecting stuttering management and measurement: IV, Predictors of outcome for a behavioural treatment for stuttering. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders; 41(4): 395–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13682820600623853. PMid:16815808

Bloom CM, Cooperman DK (1999). Synergistic stuttering therapy: A holistic approach. Andover, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Boberg E (1981). Maintenance of fluency. In E. Boberg (Ed.). Maintenance of fluency. New York: Elsevier: 71-111.

Boberg E, Howie P, Woods L (1979). Maintenance of fluency: A review. Journal of Fluency Disorders; 4: 93-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0094-730X(79)90009-3

Coulter C, Anderson J, Conture E (2009). Childhood stuttering and dissociations across linguistic domains: A replication and extension. Journal of Fluency Disorders; 34: 257-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfludis.2009.10.005. PMid:20113770. PMCid:2818587

Craig A (1998). Relapse following treatment for stuttering: A critical review and correlative data. Journal of Fluency Disorders; 23: 1-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0094-730X(97)00027-2

Craig A, Andrews G (1985). The prediction and prevention of relapse in stuttering. The value of self-control techniques and locus of control measures. Behaviour Modification; 9: 427-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01454455850094002. PMid:4074292

Craig A, Calver P (1991). Following up on treated stutterers: Studies on perceptions of fluency and job status. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research; 34: 279-284. PMid:2046352

Craig A, Feyer A, Andrews G (1987). An overview of behavioural treatment for stuttering. Australian Psychologist; 22: 53-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00050068708256197

Craig A, Hancock K (1995). Self-reported factors related to relapse following treatment for stuttering. Australian Journal of Human Communication Disorders; 23: 48-60.

Craig A, Howie P (1982). Locus of control and maintenance of behavioural therapy skills. British Journal of Clinical Psychology; 21: 65-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1982.tb01429.x. PMid:7126947

Davis S, Shisca D, Howell P (2007). Anxiety in speakers who persist and recover from stuttering. Journal of Communication Disorders; 40: 398-417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2006.10.003. PMid:17157866

Finn P (1997). Adults recovered from stuttering without formal treatment: Perceptual assessment of speech normalcy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research; 40: 821–831. PMid:9263946

Guitar B (1976). Pre-treatment factors associated with the outcome of stuttering therapy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research; 18: 590-600.

Hall SM (1980). Self-management and therapeutic maintenance: Theory and research. In: P.Karoly & J.J.Steffen, (Eds.). Improving the long-term effects of psychotherapy: Models of durable outcome. New York: Gardner Press: 263-300.

Ingham RJ (1982). The effects of self-evaluation training on maintenance and generalisation during stuttering treatment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders; 47: 271–280. PMid:7186562

Ingham RJ, Finn P, Bothe AK (2005). "Roadblocks" revisited: Neural changes and recovery from stuttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders; 30: 91–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfludis.2005.01.004. PMid:15949540

Jane EP, George EK (2008). Stuttering: An overview. American Family Physician; 77(9): 1271-6.

Kamhi A (l982). The problem of relapse in stuttering: Some thoughts on what might cause it and how to deal with it. Journal of Fluency Disorders; 7: 459 469. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0094-730X(82)90021-3

Ladouceur R, Caron C, Caron G (1989). Stuttering severity and treatment outcome. Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry; 20: 49-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7916(89)90007-4

Manning WH (2006). Therapeutic change and the nature of our evidence: improving our ability to help. In N. Bernstein Ratner and J. Tetnowski, Current Issues in Stuttering Research and Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Inc. Chapter 9: 125-158. PMid:16368965. PMCid:1346648

Miller B, Guitar B (2009). Long-term outcome of the Lidcombe Programme for early stuttering intervention. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology; 18: 42–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2008/06-0069)

Quarrington B (1977). How do the various theories of stuttering facilitate our therapeutic approach? Journal of Communication Disorders; 10: 77–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9924(77)90017-X

Riley GD (1994) Stuttering severity instrument for children and adults. (3rd edn.), Pro-Ed; Austin, TX

Seider RA, Kidd KK, Gladstein KL (1983). Recovery and persistence of stuttering among relatives of stutterers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders; 48: 402-409. PMid:6645435

Sheehan JG (1970). Stuttering: Research and therapy, New York, Harper & Row: 312-351.

Sheehan JG, Martyn MM (1966). Spontaneous recovery from stuttering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research; 9: 121-135. PMid:5960191

Silverman FH (1992). Stuttering and other fluency disorders. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

St. Louis KO, Westbrook JB (1987). The effectiveness of treatment for stuttering. In L. Rustin, H. Purser, & D. Rowley (Eds.), Progress in the treatment of fluency disorders. London: Taylor & Francis: 235-257.

Wampold BE (2001). The great psychotherapy debate: Models, methods, and findings. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

Webster RL (1979). Empirical considerations regarding stuttering therapy. In H. H. Gregory (Ed.), Controversies about stuttering therapy. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press: 209-239.

Yairi E (2007). Subtyping stuttering I: A review. Journal of Fluency Disorders; 32: 165–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfludis.2007.04.001. PMid:17825668

Yaruss JS (1998). Real-time analysis of speech fluency: Procedures and reliability training. American Journal of Speech Language Pathology; 7: 25-37.

Yaruss JS, Quesal RW (2001). Developing instruments for documenting stuttering treatment outcomes. In H. G. Bosshardt, J. S. Yaruss, & H. F. M. Peters (Eds.), Fluency disorders: Theory, research, treatment, and self-help. Proceedings of the Third World Congress on Fluency Disorders: 227–231.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5463/dcid.v24i1.189

Copyright (c) 2015 Pravesh Arya, Geetha Y V

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Supported by:


© Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development