Human Rights, Social Inclusion and Health Equity in International Donors' Policies
Background: Health policies have the potential to be important instruments in achieving equity in health. A framework – EquiFrame - for assessing the extent to which health policies promote equity was used to perform an equity audit of the health policies of three international aid organizations.
Objective: To assess the extent to which social inclusion and human rights feature in the health policies of DFID (UK), Irish Aid, and NORAD (Norway).
Method: EquiFrame provides a tool for analyzing equity and quality of health policies with regards to social inclusion and human rights. Each health policy was analyzed with regards to the frequency and content of a predefined set of Vulnerable Groups and Core Concepts.
Results: The three policies vary but are all relatively weak with regards to social inclusion and human rights issues as defined in EquiFrame. The needs and rights of vulnerable groups for adequate health services are largely not addressed.
Conclusion: In order to enhance a social inclusion and human rights perspective that will promote equity in health through more equitable health policies, it is suggested that EquiFrame can be used to guide the revision and development of the health policies of international organizations, aid agencies and bilateral donors in the future.
Limitations: Analyses are limited to “policy on the books” and does not measure how effectively vulnerable groups are included in mainstream health policy work.
Amin M, MacLachlan M, Mannan H, El Tayeb S, El Khatim A, Swartz L, Munthali A, van Rooy G, McVeigh J, Eide A, Schneider M (2012). EqiuFrame: A framework for analysis of the inclusion of human rights and vulnerable groups in health policies. Health & Human Rights; 13(2): 1 – 20.
Braveman P (2006). Health disparities and health equity: Concepts and measurements. Annu Rev Public Health; 27: 167–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.27.021405.102103. PMid:16533114.
Castells M (1996). The rise of network society. Malden MA, Blackwell.
Eide AH, Loeb ME, Nhiwatiwa S, Munthali A, Ngulube TJ, van Rooy G (2011). Living conditions among people with disabilities in developing countries. In: A H Eide & B Ingstad. Disability and Poverty. A Global Challenge. Bristol: The Policy Press.
Gilson L, Buse K, Murray S, Dickinson C (2008). Future dimensions for health policy analysis: A tribute to the work of professor Gill Walt. Health Policy and Planning; 23(5): 291–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czn025. PMid: 18664525.
Gilson L, Raphaely N (2008). The terrain of health policy analysis in low and middle income countries: A review of published literature 1994 – 2007. Health Policy and Planning; 23(5): 294–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czn019. PMid:18650209 PMCid:2515407.
Gwatkin DR, Bhuiya A, Victora CG (2004). Making health systems more equitable. Lancet; 364: 1273–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17145-6.
Kickbush I (2000). The development of international health policies – accountability intact? Social Science & Medicine; 51: 979–989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00076-9
MacLachlan M, Khasnabis C, Mannan H (2011). Inclusive Health.Viewpoint. Tropical Medicine and International Health.
Mannan H, Amin M, MacLachlan M & The EquitAble Consortium (2011). The EquiFrame Manual. Dublin; Global Health Press.
Mannan H, Amin M, MacLachlan M (2012). Non-communicable disease priority actions and social inclusion. Lancet; 379(9812): e17-e18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60106-8
Oliver A, Healey A, Le Grand J (2002). Addressing health inequalities. Lancet; 360(9332): 565-567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09713-1.
Reichard A, Sacco TM, Turnbull R (2004). Access to health care for individuals with developmental disabilities from minority backgrounds. Mental Retardation; 42(6): 459–470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765(2004)42<459:ATHCFI>2.0.CO;2.
Reinicke W (1998). Global public policy: Governing without government? Washington DC: Brooking Institution Press.
Russel S, Gilson L (2006). Are health services protecting the livelihoods of the urban poor in Sri Lanka? Findings from two low-income areas of Colombo. Social Science and Medicine; 63(7): 1732–1744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.04.017. PMid:16766105.
Stowe MJ, Turnbull HR (2001). Tools for analysing policy on the books and policy on the streets. Journal of Disability Policy Studies; 12(3): 206–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104420730101200306.
Unger J-P, Dessel PV, Sen K, Paepe PD (2009). International health policy and stagnating maternal mortality: is there a causal link? Reproductive Health Matters; 17(33): 91–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0968-8080(09)33460-6.
United Nations (2000). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 55/2, UN Millennium Declaration. New York: United Nations.
United Nations (2008). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York. Available: www.un.org/disabilities/convention/facts.shtml
Van Rooy G, Amadhila EM, Mufune P, Swartz L, Mannan H, MacLachlan M (2012). Perceived barriers to accessing health services among people with disabilities in rural northern Namibia. Disability and Society; 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.686877.
World Health Organisation (2011). World Report on Disability. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
World Health Organisation, Regional Office for Europe (2008). The Tallinn Charter: Health Systems for Health and Wealth. WHO European Ministerial Conference on Health Systems: “Health Systems, Health and Wealth”. Tallinn, Estonia, 25-27 June 2008.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2015 Arne Henning Eide, Mutamad Amin, Malcolm MacLachlan, Hasheem Mannan, Marguerite Schneider
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
© Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development